Montenegro literal meaning “Black Mountain” is located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east and Albania to the south-east. The capital and largest city of Montenegro is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Prijestonica, meaning the former Royal Capital City. Montenegro is divided into twenty-one municipalities, and two urban municipalities, subdivisions of Podgorica municipality. Each municipality can contain multiple cities and towns. The current 21 Municipalities is Montenegro are Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pluzine, Pljevlja, Podgorica (Urban Municiplaity of Tuzi and Zeta), Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj and Zabljak.
Since the 10th century, Independent Slavic principalities ruled the territories of Montenegro. Duklja, Travunia, Rascia, Vojislavljevic dynasty and Crnojevic dynasty were the prominent amongst them. As the Crnojević dynasty disintegrated, its Bishops ruled Montenegro until 1696, and then by the House of Petrović-Njegoš until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
Montenegro is classified by the World Bank as a middle-income country. Montenegro is a member of the UN, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Montenegro is currently an official candidate for membership in the European Union and official candidate for membership of NATO.
The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a “civic, democratic, ecological state of social justice, based on the reign of Law.” Montenegro is an independent and sovereign republic that proclaimed its new constitution on 22 October 2007.
The President of Montenegro is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections. The President represents the republic abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament, proposes candidates for Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament. The current President of Montenegro, Filip Vujanović is serving as the President of Montenegro since 2003. He is the first President of Montenegro since it split ties with Serbia and became an independent nation in June 2006. He claimed a landslide victory in the April 2008 Presidential election and is serving his second term till May 2013.
The Government of Montenegro is the executive branch of Government Authority of Montenegro and is headed by the Prime Minister and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers. Milo Đukanović of the Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) is the Prime Minister of Montenegro since 2012. The current members of the cabinet were elected on 4 December 2012 by the majority vote in the Parliament of Montenegro. The Cabinet, assembled by Candidate for the Prime Minister Milo Đukanović, was supported by ruling coalition called as the Coalition for European Montenegro, consisting of DPS, Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP), Liberal Democratic Party of Montenegro (LPCG), the Bosniak Party (BS) and the Croatian Civic Initiative (HGI).
TThe economy of Montenegro is mostly service-based and is in late transition to a market economy. According to MONSTAT, the real growth rate of gross domestic product for 2011 is 3.2%. The Gross domestic product of Montenegro in 2011 amounted in total 3 234 million EUR, and for 2010 was 3 104 million EUR. The Gross domestic product per capita in 2011 is 5 211 EUR, and for 2010 was 5 011 EUR. Montenegrin economy recorded a real GDP decline of 0,9% in the first half of 2012. A slight recovery of the Montenegrin economy began in the second quarter, according to data from July and August, continuing in the third quarter. The growth in the sectors of tourism and agriculture will affect the alignment of the negative rate and the achievement of the projections made earlier, forecasting the growth of 0.5% for 2012. The estimated GDP for the the year 2012 is 3324 million Euros.
Inflation in 2012 was up in August, and stood at 4% per annum, being the result of the increase in fuel and food prices and administrative measures. The Annual inflation for 2012, is projected at a level of 4%, whereas the Central Bank’s projection in 4, 75%.
The labor market in 2012 is recording positive trends in the employment growth and decline in the unemployment rate. In August 2012, the number of employees amounted at 173, 024 (peak season), and the number of unemployed 28,549 thus the unemployment rate was at 12, 3% experiencing the downward trend since February. From January – August of 2012, compared to the same period of the last year, the number of employees has increased by 1.5%. Average gross earning in August amounted to 716 euros, and the average net earning to Eur 480.
Montenegro and India
IIndia’s relations with Montenegro have traditionally been close and friendly since the days of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) of which it was a constituent republic. During the 1990s, Yugoslavia started to disintegrate. Serbia and Montenegro formed a loose federation called Union of Serbia and Montenegro in February 2003. The arrangement was made to placate Montenegro’s restive stirrings for independence and stipulated that Montenegro could hold a referendum on independence after three years. As a result of a referendum on Montenegrin independence that took place on May 21, 2006 and approved by over 55% of Montenegrin population, Montenegro separated from Serbia and became an independent country on June 3, 2006. India recognized Montenegro as an independent sovereign state on August 2, 2006. India’s Ambassador in Vienna has been concurrently accredited to Montenegro since October 2010.